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hn u. I’d li t s this ftrnn but th intrtin f uddhist hilsh with thr hilshis.

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Whn w s but uddhist hilsh, thr is nt just n t f uddhist hilsh.

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If w l t th histril dvlmnt f uddhism in Indi,

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thn w find tht mn diffrnt shls f uddhist hilsh dvld.

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nd, lthugh th r tling but th sm issus, th h hv thir wn intrrttin.

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his bms vn mr nfusing whn w turn t ibtn uddhism.

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bus within h f th fur ibtn trditins, h f thm hs thir wn intrrttin f h f th Indin uddhist sstms.

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vn within th Indin shls, vn within th ibtn shls, thr r mn diffrnt uthrs.

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nd h f ths uthrs hs thir wn intrrttin.

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S, whn fd with th qustin f th intrtin f uddhist hilsh with thr nn-uddhist hilshis, this bms vr ml.

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bus n hs t s whih t f uddhist hilsh r w tling but?

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ut n thing tht ms th ts littl bit sir is tht thr is grt dl f mhsis n dfinitins.

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h stud f hilsh in th uddhist mnstris is tull rfrrd t b th ibtn wrd “ dfinitins,” tsn-ni in ibtn.

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his, I thin, is th mst ruil st f ling t th intrtin f uddhist hilsh with thr nn-uddhist thris.

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his is t l t th dfinitins f th trms,

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bus just th trnsltin f th hilshil trm is nt nugh,

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bus vr ftn just frm th nm f th trm n hs vr littl id f wht it tull mns.

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If u dn’t hv lr dfinitin f th riginl trm, whn u trnslt it int nthr lngug u ftn thin it mns smthing quit diffrnt.

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h stud f mrtiv hilsh bms vr, vr brd ti rquiring vr thrugh nwldg f th tw sstms tht u r mring.

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n f m thrs in Indi, Gsh Ngwng Dhrg,

usd t ritiiz Wstrn studnts n svrl ints.

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n f thm ws tht w wr lws sing, “w ds this mr with tht?”.

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sid tht u n nl mr tw sstms whn u hv studid h f thm vr thrughl n thir wn.

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If u tr t mr tw sstms, nithr f whih u rll undrstnd full, u r nl lft with nfusin.

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his is rtinl vr tru.

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ls, whn w l t n rtiulr shl f uddhist hilsh,

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th dn’t ist in isltin frm thr sts f th things f tht rtiulr shl.

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S, w nd t stud ll th vrius sts f rtiulr shl in rdr t undrstnd just n st,

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bus whn w l t, fr instn, th ssrtins but rlit,

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this hs t b undrstd in trms f tht shl’s lntin f rtin.

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rtin hs t d nt nl with ur visul rtin, snsr rtin, but ls mntl rtin.

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ht mns tht w nd t undrstnd bth ntul nd nnntul gnitin.

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nd tht thn is vr muh nntd with th mthd f mdittin tht’s tught in tht shl.

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nd it ls ffts th mthd f lgi tht is tught in tht shl.

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ll f ths things fit tgthr nd, if u just l t n i withut ling t th whl, n gts nl vr rtil itur.

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S, n nds t s th ntir ntt, th ntir itur, in rdr t undrstnd h f ths lmnts.

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hr r tw funtins whih r invlvd whn w strt t gt int diffrnt ultur.

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n is hw d w trnslt th uddhist hilsh int nthr lngug ming frm diffrnt ulturl nd hilshil bgrund.

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h thr is hw d w undrstnd this in mrisn t th ulturl nd hilshil trditin f th trgt lngug.

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hs tw issus tull r quit rltd.

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bus it ffts th hi f trminlg fr trnslting hilshil thnil trms frm th riginl uddhist lngugs int nw lngugs.

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Nw, I dn’t wnt t g, in this tl, int th whl disussin f th ssibilitis f trnsltin, I’ll s but tht tmrrw,

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but th min rinil is t tr t find smthing in th nw lngug tht tull mns wht th dfinitin is tling but.

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Whn ging int ibtn, thr wrn’t lrd stblishd hilshil trms frm its wn trditin, n.

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It ws nt suh mlitd ts t m u nw wrds,

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whih did nt lrd hv nnttin frm thir wn hilshil sstm.

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In th rl hins trnsltins th usd hilshil trms frm hins hilshil sstms.

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nd this rbbl usd lt f nfusin nd misundrstnding.

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hrfr, in ltr trnsltins th rld ths trms with thr trms.

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hr is ls f urs th ssibilit nd this ws usd in mn diffrnt lngugs f just rtining th riginl Snsrit trms. hr ws ls th ssibilit f ing th Snsrit trms in trnslitrtin nd nt trnslt thm int nthr lngug.

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S, l just ndd t lrn ths nw wrds.

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uddhism itslf, if w l t th rl histr, did nt vlv r dvl in isltin,

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but dvld in dilgu with thr Indin hilshis t th tim.

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S w find mn mmn fturs in Jinism with uddhism,

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nd mn f th issus tht wr disussd in vrius Unishds w find ls in th uddhist mtril.

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ut n thing tht is ntwrth hr is tht th’r tling but th sm Snsrit trms,

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but h hs thir wn dfinitin nd h hs thir wn sstm built rund it.

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hn, slightl ltr in Indin histr, w find grt dl f dilgu nd dbt mng th vrius Indin hilshil sstms.

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h rtiints in ths dbts wr th uddhists, th Jins nd mn f wht n b lsl lld indu hilshis.

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gin, th shrd mmn trminlg, but with ths diffrnt dfinitins,

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nd lthugh thr r slight diffrns in th rsnttin f lgi nd dbt in ths vrius shls, th hd grt dl in mmn.

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S, this md dilgu quit ssibl.

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It is tught b n grt Indin uddhist ndit, Shntidv,

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tht in rdr t hv dilgu r dbt, th tw sids nd t gr n t f lgi.

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nd th nd t hv sm mmn trminlg,

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thrwis it is lmst imssibl t dilgu.

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his ws ssibl in th Indin ntt,

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but whn uddhism wnt t hin, it fd vr grt diffiultis.

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bus, lthugh thr is vr, vr minr shl f lgi in trditinl lssil hins hilsh,

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nvrthlss fr th mst rt th disussin f lgi nd dbt w find missing in hins thught.

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S, whn thr ws fmus dbt in ibt during th lttr rt f th ighth ntur,

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in whih grt mstr f Indin uddhist lgi nd dbt ws dbting ginst hins mstr.

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t did whih frm f uddhism wuld b th min frm tht wuld b dtd in ibt,

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thn n wndr th Indin stl wn,

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bus th hins sid did nt rll hv suh dvld frm f dbt nd lgi.

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hr wr, f urs, litil nsidrtins tht fftd tht finl disin f wh wn,

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but I thin this dbt illustrts th diffiult f hving dilgu btwn th hilshil sstms f tw ulturs tht r s diffrnt.

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hr is vr fmus str f rnt dbt r disussin btwn ibtn uddhist mstr nd Jns Zn mstr.

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h Jns mstr hlds u n rng nd ss, “Wht is this?”.

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tring t strt Jns n t f rsnttin.

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h ibtn mstr turns t his trnsltr nd ss, “Wht’s th mttr, dn't th hv rngs whr h ms frm?”.

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S, this, lthugh, is tld s j, it susdl tull hnd.

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gin, it illustrts hw tw ttll diffrnt ws f thining nd rsnting uddhism, vn within uddhism, hv suh diffiult dilguing.

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S, if w s th qustin but dilgu btwn uddhist hilsh nd Wstrn hilsh, w nuntr mn f th sm rblms,

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bus just s it is th s in uddhism, in Wstrn hilsh s wll it is nt just n hilsh.

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hr r mn, mn diffrnt hilshrs vr vr lng rid f histr tht hv writtn tnsivl in ur Wstrn iviliztins,

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ging b t th nint Grs nd ll th w u t mdrn tims.

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lthugh mn f ths Wstrn hilshrs hv disussd th sm issus mng thmslvs,

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this hs ls bn in lrg vrit f lngugs,

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nd thr hv bn rblms ssitd with trnslting ths issus frm n Wstrn lngug t nthr.

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S, gin, I thin w nd t g b t this rinil tht I disussd rlir,

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tht w n nl s but n rtiulr sstm t tim.

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W hv t l t its wn dfinitins nd its wn trms.

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nd th lrgr ntt f thr sts f thught tht might b rt f th sm sstm.

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nd thn w n mr n Wstrn sstm with n uddhist sstm.

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thrwis, if w tr t gnrliz, ftn it is nt s rdutiv.

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It m giv rugh id, but usull it is quit imris.

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f urs thr is vlu in n histril rh.

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In rdr t tr th dvlmnt f rtin trms nd sifi hilshil issus within, s, Indin uddhism r in ibtn uddhism

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this is smthing whih is nt rt f th trditinl mthdlg.

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tht w find in n f th trditinl uddhist rs,

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this is Wstrn mthdlg.

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It is smthing tht rtinl w uld l t ur stud f uddhist hilsh.

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nd it’s smthing tht hls us, s Wstrnrs, t undrstnd.

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In uddhism w s but diffrnt ts f wht I ll d wrnss.

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Fr ths wh nw Snsrit, this is th trm jnn.

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lthugh tht trm hs mn, mn diffrnt mnings in diffrnt ntts, n mning is sstm f fiv ts f vr bsi ws in whih th mind wrs, fr vrbd, inluding th rthwrm.

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n f ths ts f d wrnss is individulizing, t nw th individulit f things.

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S, w n tll n thing rt frm smthing ls,

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nd nw th individul hrtristis f n thing.

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If w l t th ibtn uddhists, w find tht this t f w in whih th mind nws things is sill rminnt in thir w f thining.

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S, th r vr, vr gd t dsribing things within n sifi sstm.

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nthr f ths fiv ts f d wrnss is lld qulizing d wrnss.

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With this t f w f nwing, w ut things tgthr int qul tgris, qull int tgr.

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W s wht is th mmnlit f vrius things, s w n quliz thm, in sns.

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Fr instn, thr r s mn diffrnt inds f dgs, but w r bl t s thm ll s dgs.

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ut, with individulizing w wuld nw “this dg.”.

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ur Wstrn w f thining is vr gd t this qulizing d wrnss.

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W n s ttrns vr wll,

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nd ur dutin sstm ths us tht.

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S, if w s wht t f Wstrn mthdlg n b usful fr studing uddhist hilsh,

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I wuld nt rmmnd tring t find quivlnt mthsil trms in th Wst fr uddhist trms,

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bus th lrd hv thir wn dfinitins in ur sstms.

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ut rthr w mhsiz wht w r sill gd t, whih is t s th ttrns.

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in rdr t undrstnd th dvlmnt f vrius thughts,

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whih hls us s Wstrnrs, t b bl t undrstnd mr full nd dl.

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hn u.

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Qustin: Wht but th thr thr ts f d wrnss?

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nswr: h thr thr ts f d wrnss r, first f ll, th t tht is li mirrr,

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with whih w t in infrmtin.

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It dsn’t mn rflting li th mirrr, I thin ur Wstrn img wuld b muh bttr mr r udi rrdr.

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nd thn thr is mlishing wrnss. “mlish” mns t d smthing,

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hw t rlt t things, wht t d with thm.

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nd thn, wht’s lld “dhrmdhtu.” ht’s Snsrit wrd, whih mns th wrnss f th rlit f things,

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wht things r.

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nd, n dr lvl, hw th ist.

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If w t ur frindl rthwrm s n ml,

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th rthwrm will rh smthing nd t in th infrmtin,

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fr instn fd,

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nd it is bl t ut tht infrmtin tgthr with thr infrmtin s tht it nws tht this is fd, nt r.

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It wuld individuliz this littl i f fd tht is smthing t t, nt tht n;

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nd it nws wht t d with it, nml t t it,

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nd it nws wht it is. It ds nt hv wrd fr fd, but it hs sm srt f nt tht it is dibl.

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his is th w tht th mind in gnrl wrs rding t this nlsis.

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fr ll bings.

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Qustin: If w nd t nw whl sstm in rdr t undrstnd rtiulr hilshil trm, thn this mns nwing th dfinitins f vrius trms nd within th dfinitins r mr trms nd u hv t nw th dfinitins f tht. It gs n nd n infinitl. S hw d w dl with this?

nswr: I thin in trms f n dfinitin, h wrd in th dfinitin hs dfinitin, it’s nt just th thnil trms.

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his f urs ss rblm fr mmunitin in gnrl. Is mmunitin ssibl btwn tw l?

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us vrbd hs thir rivt dfinitins s wll s th ditinr dfinitins.

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ut wht I ws rfrring t is th dfinitins f th mjr trms.

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nd th nssit t stud brdl in rdr t undrstnd th sstm.

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I dn’t thin tht trnsltin is imssibl, in ft I’m big rnnt tht vrthing n b trnsltd.

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ut mn f th trms whih hv bn hsn b nintnth ntur missinris, t. fr trnslting uddhist trms r nt rll rrit. h dn't fit th trms.

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S, w hv t l t th dfinitin nd find smthing tht tull mns it.

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hn u.

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